Send to

Choose Destination
ChemSusChem. 2015 Apr 13;8(7):1133-42. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201403329. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Current technologies, economics, and perspectives for 2,5-dimethylfuran production from biomass-derived intermediates.

Author information

Department of Chemistry and the Center for direct Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels (C3Bio), Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (USA).


Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a perspective article that described the potential of the top ten biomass-derived platform chemicals as petroleum replacements for high-value commodity and specialty chemicals, researchers around the world have been motivated to develop technologies for the conversion of biomass and biomass-derived intermediates into chemicals and fuels. Among several biorefinery processes, the conversion of biomass carbohydrates into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) has received significant attention because of its low oxygen content, high energy content, and high octane value. DMF can further serve as a petroleum-replacement, biorenewable feedstock for the production of p-xylene (pX). In this review, we aim specifically to present a concise and up-to-date analysis of DMF production technologies with a critical discussion on catalytic systems, mechanistic insight, and process economics, which includes sensitivity analysis, so that more effective catalysts can be designed. Special emphasis has been given to bifunctional catalysts that improve DMF yields and selectivity and the synergistic effect of the bifunctional sites. Process economics for the current processes and the scope for further improvement are discussed. It is anticipated that the chemistry detailed in this review will guide researchers to develop more practical catalytic processes to enable the economic production of bio-based DMF. Processes for the upgrade of DMF to pX are also described.


biomass; reaction mechanisms; reactive intermediates; renewable resources; zeolites

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center