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Int J Dent Hyg. 2016 Feb;14(1):62-73. doi: 10.1111/idh.12118. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

The incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Department of Periodontology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This review determines the incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings based on a systematic evaluation of the available literature.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched through June 2014 to identify appropriate studies. The incidence of complications, as established by a dental professional associated with oral and peri-oral piercings, was evaluated in populations with lip and/or tongue piercings. The quality of the case-control studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. For case series studies, the risk of bias was assessed using the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence scale.

RESULTS:

An independent screening of 1580 unique titles and abstracts revealed 15 publications that met the eligibility criteria. The incidence of gingival recessions appeared to be 50% in subjects with lip piercings and 44% in subjects with a tongue piercing. Tooth injuries were observed in 26% individuals with lip piercings and in up to 37% of individuals with tongue piercings. Subjects with a lip piercing were 4.14 times (P = 0.005) more likely to develop gingival recession than those without a lip piercing. Subjects with a tongue piercing were more likely than non-pierced subjects to experience gingival recession (relative risk (RR) 2.77; P = 0.00001) and tooth injuries (RR 2.44; P = 0.003).

CONCLUSION:

Both lip and tongue piercings are highly associated with the risk of gingival recession, and tongue piercings are also associated with tooth injuries.

KEYWORDS:

complications; incidence; lip piercing; oral piercing; systematic review; tongue piercing

PMID:
25690049
DOI:
10.1111/idh.12118
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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