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Menopause. 2015 Sep;22(9):1006-11. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000416.

Menopausal symptoms in women with chronic kidney disease.

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1Division of Nephrology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 2Department of Medicine, Stanford Prevention Research Center, Palo Alto, CA 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 4University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 5Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research NW, Portland, OR 6Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 7MedStar Health Research Institute, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 8Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 9Section of Nephrology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 10Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, California.



This study aims to determine whether menopausal symptoms differed between women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and women without CKD, and whether CKD modified associations of late vasomotor symptoms (VMS) with mortality and/or cardiovascular events.


CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate lower than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m (using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation), was determined in 17,891 postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 79 years at baseline, in the multiethnic Women's Health Initiative cohort. Primary outcomes were presence, severity, and timing/duration of VMS (self-reported hot flashes and night sweats) at baseline. We used polytomous logistic regression to test for associations among CKD and four VMS categories (no VMS; early VMS-present before menopause but not at study baseline; late VMS-present only at study baseline; persistent VMS-present before menopause and study baseline) and Cox regression to determine whether CKD modified associations between late VMS and mortality or cardiovascular events.


Women with CKD (1,017 of 17,891; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate, 50.7 mL/min/1.73 m) were more likely to have had menopause before age 45 years (26% vs 23%, P = 0.02) but were less likely to experience VMS (38% vs 46%, P < 0.001) than women without CKD. Women with CKD were not more likely than women without CKD to experience late VMS. Late VMS (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29) and CKD (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54-1.97) were each independently associated with increased risk for mortality, but CKD did not modify the association of late VMS with mortality (Pinteraction = 0.53), coronary heart disease (Pinteraction = 0.12), or stroke (Pinteraction = 0.68).


Women with mild CKD experience earlier menopause and fewer VMS than women without CKD.

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