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Anesth Analg. 2015 Jan;120(1):165-75. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000472.

Optimal ventilation of the anesthetized pediatric patient.

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From the Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


Mechanical ventilation of the pediatric patient is challenging because small changes in delivered volume can be a significant fraction of the intended tidal volume. Anesthesia ventilators have traditionally been poorly suited to delivering small tidal volumes accurately, and pressure-controlled ventilation has become used commonly when caring for pediatric patients. Modern anesthesia ventilators are designed to deliver small volumes accurately to the patient's airway by compensating for the compliance of the breathing system and delivering tidal volume independent of fresh gas flow. These technology advances provide the opportunity to implement a lung-protective ventilation strategy in the operating room based upon control of tidal volume. This review will describe the capabilities of the modern anesthesia ventilator and the current understanding of lung-protective ventilation. An optimal approach to mechanical ventilation for the pediatric patient is described, emphasizing the importance of using bedside monitors to optimize the ventilation strategy for the individual patient.

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[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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