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Biol Open. 2015 Jan 16;4(2):186-96. doi: 10.1242/bio.20149589.

Shroom3 functions downstream of planar cell polarity to regulate myosin II distribution and cellular organization during neural tube closure.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
2
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA jeffh@pitt.edu.

Abstract

Neural tube closure is a critical developmental event that relies on actomyosin contractility to facilitate specific processes such as apical constriction, tissue bending, and directional cell rearrangements. These complicated processes require the coordinated activities of Rho-Kinase (Rock), to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and actomyosin contractility, and the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, to direct the polarized cellular behaviors that drive convergent extension (CE) movements. Here we investigate the role of Shroom3 as a direct linker between PCP and actomyosin contractility during mouse neural tube morphogenesis. In embryos, simultaneous depletion of Shroom3 and the PCP components Vangl2 or Wnt5a results in an increased liability to NTDs and CE failure. We further show that these pathways intersect at Dishevelled, as Shroom3 and Dishevelled 2 co-distribute and form a physical complex in cells. We observed that multiple components of the Shroom3 pathway are planar polarized along mediolateral cell junctions in the neural plate of E8.5 embryos in a Shroom3 and PCP-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that Shroom3 mutant embryos exhibit defects in planar cell arrangement during neural tube closure, suggesting a role for Shroom3 activity in CE. These findings support a model in which the Shroom3 and PCP pathways interact to control CE and polarized bending of the neural plate and provide a clear illustration of the complex genetic basis of NTDs.

KEYWORDS:

Apical constriction; Myosin II; Neural tube; Planar polarity; Shroom3

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