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Addict Behav. 2015 Apr;43:18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.12.003. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

Author information

  • 1Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA; Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address: Damaris_Rohsenow@brown.edu.
  • 2Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
  • 3Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA; Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Abstract

Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (p<.06) when controlling for FTND. Lower withdrawal intolerance significantly predicted 3month abstinence when controlling for FTND. Higher withdrawal intolerance pretreatment correlated with less motivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation.

KEYWORDS:

Contingency management; Contingent vouchers; Intolerance for discomfort; Motivation to quit smoking; Nicotine dependence; Point-prevalence abstinence

PMID:
25531536
PMCID:
PMC4304939
DOI:
10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.12.003
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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