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J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Dec 13;107(1):366. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dju366. Print 2015 Jan.

Cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer screening: a simulation study based on ERSPC data.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health (EAMH, TMdC, EMW, HJdK) and Department of Urology (CHB, FHS, MJR), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Tampere School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland (AA); Unit of Epidemiology, Institute for Cancer Prevention, Florence, Italy (MZ); Provinciaal Instituut voor Hygiëne, Antwerp, Belgium (VN, LD); Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland (MK, FR); Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Lille, France (AV); Department of Urology, Hospital de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain (AP); Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, UK (SMM); Department of Urology, Tampere University Hospital and University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland (TLJT); Oncology Center, Antwerp, Belgium (LD); Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (SVC, JH); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery (Urology), New York, NY (SVC). e.heijnsdijk@erasmusmc.nl.
2
Department of Public Health (EAMH, TMdC, EMW, HJdK) and Department of Urology (CHB, FHS, MJR), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Tampere School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland (AA); Unit of Epidemiology, Institute for Cancer Prevention, Florence, Italy (MZ); Provinciaal Instituut voor Hygiëne, Antwerp, Belgium (VN, LD); Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland (MK, FR); Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Lille, France (AV); Department of Urology, Hospital de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain (AP); Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, UK (SMM); Department of Urology, Tampere University Hospital and University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland (TLJT); Oncology Center, Antwerp, Belgium (LD); Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (SVC, JH); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery (Urology), New York, NY (SVC).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial showed a statistically significant 29% prostate cancer mortality reduction for the men screened in the intervention arm and a 23% negative impact on the life-years gained because of quality of life. However, alternative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening strategies for the population may exist, optimizing the effects on mortality reduction, quality of life, overdiagnosis, and costs.

METHODS:

Based on data of the ERSPC trial, we predicted the numbers of prostate cancers diagnosed, prostate cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, and cost-effectiveness of 68 screening strategies starting at age 55 years, with a PSA threshold of 3, using microsimulation modeling. The screening strategies varied by age to stop screening and screening interval (one to 14 years or once in a lifetime screens), and therefore number of tests.

RESULTS:

Screening at short intervals of three years or less was more cost-effective than using longer intervals. Screening at ages 55 to 59 years with two-year intervals had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $73000 per QALY gained and was considered optimal. With this strategy, lifetime prostate cancer mortality reduction was predicted as 13%, and 33% of the screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. When better quality of life for the post-treatment period could be achieved, an older age of 65 to 72 years for ending screening was obtained.

CONCLUSION:

Prostate cancer screening can be cost-effective when it is limited to two or three screens between ages 55 to 59 years. Screening above age 63 years is less cost-effective because of loss of QALYs because of overdiagnosis.

PMID:
25505238
PMCID:
PMC4296196
DOI:
10.1093/jnci/dju366
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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