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Gene. 2015 Feb 15;557(1):52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.12.009. Epub 2014 Dec 9.

The complete mitochondrial genome and its remarkable secondary structure for a stonefly Acroneuria hainana Wu (Insecta: Plecoptera, Perlidae).

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Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
Department of Plant Protection, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, China.
Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:


The Plecoptera (stoneflies) is a hemimetabolous order of insects, whose larvae are usually used as indicators for fresh water biomonitoring. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a stonefly species, namely Acroneuria hainana Wu belonging to the family Perlidae. This mt genome contains 13 PCGs, 22 tRNA-coding genes and 2 rRNA-coding genes that are conserved in most insect mt genomes, and it also has the identical gene order with the insect ancestral gene order. However, there are three special initiation codons of ND1, ND5 and COI in PCGs: TTG, GTG and CGA, coding for L, V and R, respectively. Additionally, the 899-bp control region, with 73.30% A+T content, has two long repeated sequences which are found at the 3'-end closing to the tRNA(Ile) gene. Both of them can be folded into a stem-loop structure, whose adjacent upstream and downstream sequences can be also folded into stem-loop structures. It is presumed that the four special structures in series could be associated with the D-loop replication. It might be able to adjust the replication speed of two replicate directions.


Acroneuria hainana; Mitochondrial genome; Plecoptera

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