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BMC Plant Biol. 2014 Nov 29;14:340. doi: 10.1186/s12870-014-0340-1.

Identification of candidate genes, regions and markers for pre-harvest sprouting resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).



Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat grain leads to a reduction in grain yield and quality. The availability of markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of PHS resistance will serve to enhance breeding selection and advancement of lines for cultivar development. The aim of this study was to identify candidate regions and develop molecular markers for PHS resistance in wheat. This was achieved via high density mapping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from an Illumina 90 K Infinium Custom Beadchip in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a RL4452/'AC Domain' cross and subsequent detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for PHS related traits (falling number [FN], germination index [GI] and sprouting index [SI]). SNP marker sequences flanking QTL were used to locate colinear regions in Brachypodium and rice, and identify genic markers associated with PHS resistance that can be utilized for MAS in wheat.


A linkage map spanning 2569.4 cM was constructed with a total of 12,201 SNP, simple sequence repeat (SSR), diversity arrays technology (DArT) and expressed sequence tag (EST) markers. QTL analyses using Multiple Interval Mapping (MIM) identified four QTL for PHS resistance traits on chromosomes 3B, 4A, 7B and 7D. Sequences of SNPs flanking these QTL were subject to a BLASTN search on the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) database ( Best survey sequence hits were subject to a BLASTN search on Gramene ( against both Brachypodium and rice databases, and candidate genes and regions for PHS resistance were identified. A total of 18 SNP flanking sequences on chromosomes 3B, 4A, 7B and 7D were converted to KASP markers and validated with matching genotype calls of Infinium SNP data.


Our study identified candidate genes involved in abscissic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism, and flowering time in four genomic regions of Brachypodium and rice respectively, in addition to 18 KASP markers for PHS resistance in wheat. These markers can be deployed in future genetic studies of PHS resistance and might also be useful in the evaluation of PHS in germplasm and breeding material.

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