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PLoS One. 2014 Nov 11;9(11):e111361. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111361. eCollection 2014.

Multiple thyrotropin β-subunit and thyrotropin receptor-related genes arose during vertebrate evolution.

Author information

1
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Universités, Biology of Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems (BOREA), Paris, France, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, Université Caen Basse Normandie, Caen, France, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 7208 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, France, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) 207, Paris, France.
2
Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative (BFA), Paris, France, UMR CNRS 8251, Paris, France, INSERM U1133 Physiologie de l'axe gonadotrope, Paris, France.

Abstract

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated.

PMID:
25386660
PMCID:
PMC4227674
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0111361
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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