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Front Immunol. 2014 Oct 27;5:517. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00517. eCollection 2014.

Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains and GAGs Mediate Multiple Myeloma Extracellular Vesicles Uptake and Secondary NfκB Nuclear Translocation.

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Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Brescia , Brescia , Italy.
CREA, Diagnostic Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Spedali Civili di Brescia , Brescia , Italy.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy caused by a microenviromentally aided persistence of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Monoclonal plasma cells often secrete high amounts of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) that could induce tissue damage. Recently, we showed that FLCs are internalized in endothelial and myocardial cell lines and secreted in extracellular vesicles (EVs). MM serum derived EVs presented phenotypic differences if compared with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) serum derived EVs suggesting their involvement in MM pathogenesis or progression. To investigate the effect of circulating EVs on endothelial and myocardial cells, we purified MM and MGUS serum derived EVs with differential ultracentrifugation protocols and tested their biological activity. We found that MM and MGUS EVs induced different proliferation and internalization rates in endothelial and myocardial cells, thus we tried to find specific targets in MM EVs docking and processing. Pre-treatment of EVs with anti-FLCs antibodies or heparin blocked the MM EVs uptake, highlighting that FLCs and glycosaminoglycans are involved. Indeed, only MM EVs exposure induced a strong nuclear factor kappa B nuclear translocation that was completely abolished after anti-FLCs antibodies and heparin pre-treatment. The protein tyrosine kinase c-src is present on MM circulating EVs and redistributes to the cell plasma membrane after MM EVs exposure. The anti-FLCs antibodies and heparin pre-treatments were able to block the intracellular re-distribution of the c-src kinase and the subsequent c-src kinase containing EVs production. Our results open new insights in EVs cellular biology and in MM therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.


NfκB; extracellular vesicles; glycosaminoglicans; multiple myeloma; serum-free light chain

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