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Scand J Rheumatol. 2015 May;44(3):247-52. doi: 10.3109/03009742.2014.956140. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Acute pericardial effusion representing the TNF-α-mediated severe inflammation but not the coronary artery outcome of Kawasaki disease.

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Department of Paediatrics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine , Ube , Japan.



To establish the optimal inflammation control of Kawasaki disease (KD), we investigated the clinical and pathophysiological basis of pericardial effusion (PE) during the acute phase of KD.


Clinical and laboratory features of Japanese KD children with PE (PE group: n = 9) and without PE (non-PE group: n = 89) were studied retrospectively by using the medical records. Serum levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).


PE group patients had coronary artery lesions (CALs) more frequently than non-PE group patients during the acute phase of KD (33% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.024). PE patients also showed lower levels of haemoglobin (p < 0.01) and serum albumin (p < 0.01) and higher platelet counts (p = 0.013) than non-PE patients. The proportion of neurological symptoms, but not other manifestations, in the PE group was higher than in the non-PE group (p = 0.022). All patients survived free from coronary artery aneurisms. Serum levels of sTNFR1, but not the other cytokines, in the PE group were higher than those in the non-PE group (p < 0.001). The sTNFR1 levels correlated positively with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.30, p = 0.019) or total bilirubin (r = 0.40, p < 0.01) levels.


Acute PE in KD patients indicated the severity of TNF-mediated vascular inflammation and concurrent CALs. According to the progression, these patients might need more targeted therapy of anti-inflammation for a better coronary outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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