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Burn Res. 2014 Sep 1;1(2):59-68.

Methodological considerations when translating "burnout"

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College of Nursing, New York University, USA.
NJ Collaborating Center for Nursing, Rutgers University College of Nursing, USA.
School of Nursing & Human Sciences, Dublin City University, Ireland.
University of Basel, Institute of Nursing Science, Switzerland.
Centre for Innovation and Leadership in Health Sciences, University of Southampton, England, United Kingdom.
Lehrstuhl Management im Gesundheitswesen/Department of Health Care Management - WHO Collaborating Centre for Health Systems Research and Management, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Germany.
IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nursing Science & Allied Healthcare Division, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
Nursing and Healthcare Research Unit (Investén-isciii), Spanish Department of Health, Madrid, Spain.
School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, USA ; RN4CAST, Spain.
RN4CAST, Spain ; Program Director Master in Healthcare Management & Nursing Science Centre for Health Services & Nursing Research Catholic University Leuven, Belgium.


No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross-cultural instrument analysis, 7 out of 22 items on the instrument received an extremely low kappa score. Investigators may need to employ more rigorous cross-cultural adaptation methods when attempting to measure burnout.


Burnout; Content Validity Indexing; Cross-cultural instrument adaptation; Europe; Human resources for health; Language translation; Nurses; Nursing

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