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Nat Protoc. 2014 Nov;9(11):2693-704. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.182. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

The generation of kidney organoids by differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud progenitor-like cells.

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Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA.
Renal Division, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Institut d'investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.


This protocol presents recently developed methodologies for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into ureteric bud (UB) progenitor-like cells. Differentiation of human PSCs to UB progenitor-like cells allows for the generation of chimeric kidney cultures in which the human cells can self-assemble into chimeric 3D structures in combination with embryonic mouse kidney cells over a period of 18 d. UB progenitor-like cells are generated by a two-step process that combines in vitro commitment of human PSCs, whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced PSCs (iPSCs), under chemically defined culture conditions, with ex vivo cultures for the induction of 3D organogenesis. The models described here provide new opportunities for investigating human kidney development, modeling disease, evaluating regenerative medicine strategies, as well as for toxicology studies.

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