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ISME J. 2015 May;9(5):1076-92. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.198. Epub 2014 Oct 21.

Genomes and gene expression across light and productivity gradients in eastern subtropical Pacific microbial communities.

Author information

1
Microbial and Environmental Genomics Group, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
2
Department of Biology and Biotechnology Graduate Program, American University in Cairo, New Cairo, Egypt.
3
Department of Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA.
4
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
5
1] Marine Laboratory, Nicholas School of the Environment, Beaufort, NC, USA [2] Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
6
Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA, USA.
7
1] Microbial and Environmental Genomics Group, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA [2] Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Abstract

Transitions in community genomic features and biogeochemical processes were examined in surface and subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) microbial communities across a trophic gradient from mesotrophic waters near San Diego, California to the oligotrophic Pacific. Transect end points contrasted in thermocline depth, rates of nitrogen and CO2 uptake, new production and SCM light intensity. Relative to surface waters, bacterial SCM communities displayed greater genetic diversity and enrichment in putative sulfur oxidizers, multiple actinomycetes, low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus and cell-associated viruses. Metagenomic coverage was not correlated with transcriptional activity for several key taxa within Bacteria. Low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and low abundance gamma-proteobacteria enriched in the>3.0-μm size fraction contributed disproportionally to global transcription. The abundance of these groups also correlated with community functions, such as primary production or nitrate uptake. In contrast, many of the most abundant bacterioplankton, including SAR11, SAR86, SAR112 and high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus, exhibited low levels of transcriptional activity and were uncorrelated with rate processes. Eukaryotes such as Haptophytes and non-photosynthetic Aveolates were prevalent in surface samples while Mamielles and Pelagophytes dominated the SCM. Metatranscriptomes generated with ribosomal RNA-depleted mRNA (total mRNA) coupled to in vitro polyadenylation compared with polyA-enriched mRNA revealed a trade-off in detection eukaryotic organelle and eukaryotic nuclear origin transcripts, respectively. Gene expression profiles of SCM eukaryote populations, highly similar in sequence identity to the model pelagophyte Pelagomonas sp. CCMP1756, suggest that pelagophytes are responsible for a majority of nitrate assimilation within the SCM.

PMID:
25333462
PMCID:
PMC4410273
DOI:
10.1038/ismej.2014.198
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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