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Clin Ophthalmol. 2014 Aug 25;8:1573-8. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S66160. eCollection 2014.

Evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with age-related wet macular degeneration.

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Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Department of Ophthalmology, Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey.
Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey.
Department of Ophthalmology, Erbaa Government Hospital, Tokat, Turkey.
Department of Ophthalmology, Kolan Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
Department of Ophthalmology, Igdır Government Hospital, Igdır, Turkey.
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.



To evaluate levels of homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and nitric oxide (NO), as well as activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).


The levels of homocysteine, ADMA, and NO and activity of eNOS in patients who were diagnosed with wet AMD by fundus fluorescein angiography (n=30) were compared to a control group with no retinal pathology (n=30).


Levels of homocysteine and ADMA were found to be significantly higher in the wet AMD group than in the control group (P<0.001), whereas NO levels and eNOS activity were higher in the control group (P<0.001). In the wet AMD group, we detected a 2.64- and 0.33-fold increase in the levels of ADMA and homocysteine, respectively, and a 0.49- and 2.41-fold decrease in the eNOS activity and NO level, respectively.


Elevated levels of homocysteine and ADMA were observed in patients with wet AMD. Increased ADMA may be responsible for the diminished eNOS activity found in these patients, which in turn contributes to the decrease in NO levels, which likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of AMD.


age-related macular degeneration; asymmetric dimethylarginine; endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity; homocysteine; nitric oxide

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