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Rev Sci Instrum. 2014 Aug;85(8):083106. doi: 10.1063/1.4891701.

The design and construction of a high-resolution velocity-map imaging apparatus for photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected clusters.

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Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.


A new velocity-map imaging apparatus equipped with a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected cluster anions. Vibrationally cold anion clusters are produced using a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source, size-selected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and then focused co-linearly into the interaction zone of the high-resolution velocity-map imaging (VMI) system. The multilens VMI system is optimized via systematic simulations and can reach a resolution of 1.2 cm(-1) (FWHM) for near threshold electrons while maintaining photoelectron kinetic energy resolutions (ΔKE/KE) of ~0.53% for higher energy electrons. The new VMI lens has superior focusing power over a large energy range, yielding highly circular images with distortions no larger than 1.0025 between the long and short radii. The detailed design, simulation, construction, testing, and performance of the high-resolution VMI apparatus are presented.


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