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Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014 Dec;13(12):3294-307. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M113.034363. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Global mass spectrometry and transcriptomics array based drug profiling provides novel insight into glucosamine induced endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Author information

1
From the ‡Proteolysis in Diseases, IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal; §Human Genetics Department, National Institute of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa, Portugal;
2
From the ‡Proteolysis in Diseases, IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal;
3
§Human Genetics Department, National Institute of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa, Portugal;
4
¶Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense;
5
‖Proteomics Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065-6399.
6
From the ‡Proteolysis in Diseases, IPATIMUP, Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal; §Human Genetics Department, National Institute of Health Dr Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa, Portugal; runem2009@gmail.com.

Abstract

We investigated the molecular effects of glucosamine supplements, a popular and safe alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for decreasing pain, inflammation, and maintaining healthy joints. Numerous studies have reported an array of molecular effects after glucosamine treatment. We questioned whether the differences in the effects observed in previous studies were associated with the focus on a specific subproteome or with the use of specific cell lines or tissues. To address this question, global mass spectrometry- and transcription array-based glucosamine drug profiling was performed on malignant cell lines from different stages of lymphocyte development. We combined global label-free MS-based protein quantitation with an open search for modifications to obtain the best possible proteome coverage. Our data were largely consistent with previous studies in a variety of cellular models. We mainly observed glucosamine induced O-GlcNAcylation/O-GalNAcylation (O-HexNAcylation); however, we also observed global and local changes in acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. For example, our data provides two additional examples of "yin-yang" between phosphorylation and O-HexNAcylation. Furthermore, we mapped novel O-HexNAc sites on GLU2B and calnexin. GLU2B and calnexin are known to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involved in protein folding and quality control. The O-HexNAc sites were regulated by glucosamine treatment and correlated with the up-regulation of the ER stress marker GRP78. The occupancy of O-HexNAc on GLU2B and calnexin sites differed between the cytosolic and nuclear fractions with a higher occupancy in the cytosolic fraction. Based on our data we propose the hypothesis that O-HexNAc either inactivates calnexin and/or targets it to the cytosolic fraction. Further, we hypothesize that O-HexNAcylation induced by glucosamine treatment enhances protein trafficking.

PMID:
25128556
PMCID:
PMC4256484
DOI:
10.1074/mcp.M113.034363
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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