Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Death Dis. 2014 May 29;5:e1262. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2014.177.

Receptor-interacting protein kinases modulate noise-induced sensory hair cell death.

Author information

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.


Receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases promote the induction of necrotic cell death pathways. Here we investigated signaling pathways in outer hair cells (OHCs) of adult male CBA/J mice exposed to noise that causes permanent threshold shifts, with a particular focus on RIP kinase-regulated necroptosis. One hour after noise exposure, nuclei of OHCs in the basal region of the cochlea displayed both apoptotic and necrotic features. RIP1 and RIP3 protein levels increased and caspase-8 was activated. Treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD blocked the activation of caspase-8 and reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, while increasing levels of RIP1, RIP3, and necrotic OHCs. Conversely, treatment with necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or RIP3 siRNA (siRIP3) diminished noise-induced increases in RIP1 and RIP3, and decreased necrotic OHC nuclei. This treatment also increased the number of apoptotic nuclei without increasing activation of caspase-8. Consistent with the elevation of levels of RIP1 and RIP3, noise-induced active AMPKα levels increased with ZVAD treatment, but decreased with Nec-1 and siRIP3 treatment. Furthermore, treatment with siRIP3 did not alter the activation of caspase-8, but instead increased activation of caspase-9 and promoted endonuclease G translocation into OHC nuclei. Finally, auditory brainstem response functional measurements and morphological assessment of OHCs showed that ZVAD treatment reduces noise-induced deficits. This protective function is potentiated when combined with siRIP3 treatment. In conclusion, noise-induced OHC apoptosis and necrosis are modulated by caspases and RIP kinases, respectively. Inhibition of either pathway shifts the prevalence of OHC death to the alternative pathway.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center