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Mol Cell. 2014 Apr 24;54(2):212-23. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2014.03.012.

A cross-disciplinary perspective on the innate immune responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: jonathan.kagan@childrens.harvard.edu.

Abstract

The study of innate immunity to bacteria has focused heavily on the mechanisms by which mammalian cells detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the conserved surface component of Gram-negative bacteria. While Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is responsible for all the host transcriptional responses to LPS, recent discoveries have revealed the existence of several TLR4-independent responses to LPS. These discoveries not only broaden our view of the means by which mammalian cells interact with bacteria, but they also highlight new selective pressures that may have promoted the evolution of bacterial immune evasion strategies. In this review, we highlight past and recent discoveries on host LPS sensing mechanisms and discuss bacterial countermeasures that promote infection. By looking at both sides of the host-pathogen interaction equation, we hope to provide comprehensive insights into host defense mechanisms and bacterial pathogenesis.

PMID:
24766885
PMCID:
PMC4096783
DOI:
10.1016/j.molcel.2014.03.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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