Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Res. 2014 May;131:153-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.03.003. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

Concentrations of the urinary pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study.

Author information

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, 4610 X Street Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.


Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure.


3PBA; Children; ELISA; Farm worker; Pyrethroid

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center