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Nat Commun. 2014 Feb 25;5:3329. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4329.

3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium.

Author information

1
1] Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA [2].
2
1] Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in Saint Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130, USA [2].
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
4
1] Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA [2] Center for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
5
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in Saint Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.
6
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.
7
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2V4.
8
Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632, Singapore.
9
1] Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA [2] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Program), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.
10
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

Abstract

Means for high-density multiparametric physiological mapping and stimulation are critically important in both basic and clinical cardiology. Current conformal electronic systems are essentially 2D sheets, which cannot cover the full epicardial surface or maintain reliable contact for chronic use without sutures or adhesives. Here we create 3D elastic membranes shaped precisely to match the epicardium of the heart via the use of 3D printing, as a platform for deformable arrays of multifunctional sensors, electronic and optoelectronic components. Such integumentary devices completely envelop the heart, in a form-fitting manner, and possess inherent elasticity, providing a mechanically stable biotic/abiotic interface during normal cardiac cycles. Component examples range from actuators for electrical, thermal and optical stimulation, to sensors for pH, temperature and mechanical strain. The semiconductor materials include silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride, co-integrated with metals, metal oxides and polymers, to provide these and other operational capabilities. Ex vivo physiological experiments demonstrate various functions and methodological possibilities for cardiac research and therapy.

PMID:
24569383
PMCID:
PMC4521772
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms4329
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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