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Nat Genet. 2014 Mar;46(3):253-60. doi: 10.1038/ng.2890. Epub 2014 Feb 2.

Whole-genome sequence of a flatfish provides insights into ZW sex chromosome evolution and adaptation to a benthic lifestyle.

Author information

1
1] Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao, China. [2] [3].
2
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2].
3
1] Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao, China. [2].
4
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Qingdao, China.
5
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.
6
Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon, France.
7
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
8
Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, China.
9
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
10
1] Physiologische Chemie I, University of Würzburg, Biozentrum, Am Hubland, and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Clinic Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. [2].
11
1] BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China. [2] Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. [3] Princess Al Jawhara Center of Excellence in the Research of Hereditary Disorders, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [4].

Abstract

Genetic sex determination by W and Z chromosomes has developed independently in different groups of organisms. To better understand the evolution of sex chromosomes and the plasticity of sex-determination mechanisms, we sequenced the whole genomes of a male (ZZ) and a female (ZW) half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). In addition to insights into adaptation to a benthic lifestyle, we find that the sex chromosomes of these fish are derived from the same ancestral vertebrate protochromosome as the avian W and Z chromosomes. Notably, the same gene on the Z chromosome, dmrt1, which is the male-determining gene in birds, showed convergent evolution of features that are compatible with a similar function in tongue sole. Comparison of the relatively young tongue sole sex chromosomes with those of mammals and birds identified events that occurred during the early phase of sex-chromosome evolution. Pertinent to the current debate about heterogametic sex-chromosome decay, we find that massive gene loss occurred in the wake of sex-chromosome 'birth'.

PMID:
24487278
DOI:
10.1038/ng.2890
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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