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J Food Sci. 2014 Jan;79(1):S92-9. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12323. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Aromatic profile of ciders by chemical quantitative, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and sensory analysis.

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Area of Food Technology, SERIDA, Carretera de Oviedo s/n, 33300-Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain.


Nine samples of Asturias cider have been analyzed for volatile, olfactometric, and sensorial profiles. The aromatic composition was mainly constituted by fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. Among the minor volatile compounds, fatty acids, volatile phenols, and alcohols were the main components. The olfactometric analysis revealed the existence of 55 aromatic areas, exhibiting a wide range of intensities. Components like amyl alcohols, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters such as 2-methylbutyrate, hexanoate and octanoate, hexanoic and octanoic acids 2-phenylethyl acetate, 4-ethyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol could be considered as being part of the structure of cider aroma. The extract dilution analysis of one extract identified 2 volatile phenols (4-ethyl guaiacol and 4-ethyl phenol) among the most powerful odorants in cider. These components gave significant correlations with the sensory attributes sweet, spicy, and lees.


GC-olfactometry; aromas; chemical composition; cider; sensory evaluation

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