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PLoS One. 2013 Sep 9;8(9):e74569. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074569. eCollection 2013.

Myocarditis, disseminated infection, and early viral persistence following experimental coxsackievirus B infection of cynomolgus monkeys.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America.

Abstract

Coxsackievirus B (CVB) infection is a common cause of acute viral myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myocarditis caused by this enterovirus is highly variable, ranging from mildly symptoms to complete hemodynamic collapse. These variations in initial symptoms and in the immediate and long term outcomes of this disease have impeded development of effective treatment strategies. Nine cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with myocarditic strains of CVB. Virological studies performed up to 28 days post-inoculation demonstrated the development of neutralizing antibody in all animals, and the presence of CVB in plasma. High dose intravenous inoculation (n = 2) resulted in severe disseminated disease, while low dose intravenous (n = 6) or oral infection (1 animal) resulted in clinically unapparent infection. Transient, minor, echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in several animals, but no animals displayed signs of significant acute cardiac failure. Although viremia rapidly resolved, signs of myocardial inflammation and injury were observed in all animals at the time of necropsy, and CVB was detected in postmortem myocardial specimens up to 28 days PI. This non-human primate system replicates many features of illness in acute coxsackievirus myocarditis and demonstrates that myocardial involvement may be common in enteroviral infection; it may provide a model system for testing of treatment strategies for enteroviral infections and acute coxsackievirus myocarditis.

PMID:
24040287
PMCID:
PMC3767629
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0074569
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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