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Genetics. 2013 Nov;195(3):1027-35. doi: 10.1534/genetics.113.156703. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis: male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection.

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Department of Population Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka 4118540, Japan.


The ratio of genetic diversity on X chromosomes relative to autosomes in organisms with XX/XY sex chromosomes could provide fundamental insight into the process of genome evolution. Here we report this ratio for 24 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The average X/A diversity ratios in these samples was 0.34 and 0.20 in the Indonesian-Malaysian and Philippine populations, respectively, considerably lower than the null expectation of 0.75. A Philippine population supposed to derive from an ancestral population by founding events showed a significantly lower ratio than the parental population, suggesting a demographic effect for the reduction. Taking sex-specific mutation rate bias and demographic effect into account, expected X/A diversity ratios generated by computer simulations roughly agreed with the observed data in the intergenic regions. In contrast, silent sites in genic regions on X chromosomes showed strong reduction in genetic diversity and the observed X/A diversity ratio in the genic regions cannot be explained by mutation rate bias and demography, indicating that natural selection also reduces the level of polymorphism near genes. Whole-genome analysis of a female cynomolgus monkey also supported the notion of stronger reduction of genetic diversity near genes on the X chromosome.


coalescent theory, kernel-ABC; genetic diversity; natural selection; primate; sex chromosome

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