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Cell Metab. 2013 Sep 3;18(3):341-54. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.08.009.

The hypoxia-inducible microRNA cluster miR-199a∼214 targets myocardial PPARδ and impairs mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

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Department of Cardiology, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) is a critical regulator of energy metabolism in the heart. Here, we propose a mechanism that integrates two deleterious characteristics of heart failure, hypoxia and a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, involving the microRNA cluster miR-199a∼214 and PPARδ. We demonstrate that under hemodynamic stress, cardiac hypoxia activates DNM3os, a noncoding transcript that harbors the microRNA cluster miR-199a∼214, which shares PPARδ as common target. To address the significance of miR-199a∼214 induction and concomitant PPARδ repression, we performed antagomir-based silencing of both microRNAs and subjected mice to biomechanical stress to induce heart failure. Remarkably, antagomir-treated animals displayed improved cardiac function and restored mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism whereby miR-199a∼214 actively represses cardiac PPARδ expression, facilitating a metabolic shift from predominant reliance on fatty acid utilization in the healthy myocardium toward increased reliance on glucose metabolism at the onset of heart failure.

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