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Genome Res. 2013 Dec;23(12):2003-12. doi: 10.1101/gr.157941.113. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

The shared genomic architecture of human nucleolar organizer regions.

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Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, Ireland;


The short arms of the five acrocentric human chromosomes harbor sequences that direct the assembly and function of the nucleolus, one of the key functional domains of the nucleus, yet they are absent from the current human genome assembly. Here we describe the genomic architecture of these human nucleolar organizers. Sequences distal and proximal to ribosomal gene arrays are conserved among the acrocentric chromosomes, suggesting they are sites of frequent recombination. Although previously believed to be heterochromatic, characterization of these two flanking regions reveals that they share a complex genomic architecture similar to other euchromatic regions of the genome, but they have distinct genomic characteristics. Proximal sequences are almost entirely segmentally duplicated, similar to the regions bordering centromeres. In contrast, the distal sequence is predominantly unique to the acrocentric short arms and is dominated by a very large inverted repeat. We show that the distal element is localized to the periphery of the nucleolus, where it appears to anchor the ribosomal gene repeats. This, combined with its complex chromatin structure and transcriptional activity, suggests that this region is involved in nucleolar organization. Our results provide a platform for investigating the role of NORs in nucleolar formation and function, and open the door for determining the role of these regions in the well-known empirical association of nucleoli with pathology.

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