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Plant Physiol. 2013 Oct;163(2):792-803. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.224139. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-like genes affect growth rhythm and bud set in Norway spruce.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

Abstract

The timing of bud set, as one determinant of the annual growth rhythm, is critical for local adaptation of the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies). Previous gene expression and population genetic studies have suggested a role for P. abies FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-Like2 (PaFTL2) in the control of growth cessation and bud set in Norway spruce as well as in local adaptation resulting in clinal variation for timing of bud set. Using transgenic plants with PaFTL2 driven by an inducible promoter, we found that PaFTL2 indeed induces bud set and most probably also growth cessation. PaFTL2 shows high expression around the procambium and vascular tissue and in the crown region in buds of both seedlings and older trees. Furthermore, PaFTL2 expression is induced in vegetative shoots and all bud types in late summer, when growth cessation occurs. This supports the notion that PaFTL2 is involved in growth cessation. A close paralog to PaFTL2, PaFTL1, is strongly expressed in meristems during the summer, possibly to repress meristem activity and the formation of needle primordia during this period. The temporal and spatial expression of PaFTL1 and PaFTL2 largely complement each other, which suggests that they act in concert to control perennial growth in Norway spruce.

PMID:
23958861
PMCID:
PMC3793058
DOI:
10.1104/pp.113.224139
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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