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Insect Sci. 2014 Apr;21(2):159-73. doi: 10.1111/1744-7917.12029. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

The mitochondrial genome of the plant bug Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae): Presently known as the smallest in Heteroptera.

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Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing.


The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the plant bug, Apolygus lucorum, an important cotton pest, has been sequenced and annotated in this study. The entire circular genome is 14 768 bp in size and represents the smallest in presently known heteropteran mt genomes. The mt genome is encoding for two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein coding genes and a control region, and the order, content, codon usage and base organization show similarity to a great extent to the hypothetical ancestral model. All protein coding genes use standard initiation codons ATN. Conventional stop codons TAA and TAG have been assigned to the most protein coding genes; however, COIII, ND4 and ND5 genes show incomplete terminator signal (T). All tRNA genes possess the typical clover leaf structure, but the dihydrouridine arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) only forms a simple loop. Secondary structure models of rRNA genes are generally in accordance with the former models, although some differences exist in certain parts. Three intergenic spacers have never been found in sequenced mt genomes of Heteroptera. The phylogenetic study based on protein coding genes is largely congruent with previous phylogenetic work. Both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses highly support the sister relationship of A. lucorum and Lygus lineolaris, and Miridae presents a sister position to Anthocoridae.


Apolygus lucorum; Cimicomorpha; Miridae; mitochondrial genome; phylogenetic relationship; secondary structure

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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