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Psychol Med. 2014 Apr;44(5):1053-64. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713001396.

DSM-IV defined conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: an investigation of shared liability in female twins.

Author information

1
Division of Behavioral Genetics, Rhode Island Hospital and Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
2
Suffolk University, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Midwest Alcoholism Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

DSM-IV specifies a hierarchal diagnostic structure such that an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnosis is applied only if criteria are not met for conduct disorder (CD). Genetic studies of ODD and CD support a combination of shared genetic and environmental influences but largely ignore the imposed diagnostic structure.

METHOD:

We examined whether ODD and CD share an underlying etiology while accounting for DSM-IV diagnostic specifications. Data from 1446 female twin pairs, aged 11-19 years, were fitted to two-stage models adhering to the DSM-IV diagnostic hierarchy.

RESULTS:

The models suggested that DSM-IV ODD-CD covariation is attributed largely to shared genetic influences.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine genetic and environmental overlap among these disorders while maintaining a DSM-IV hierarchical structure. The findings reflect primarily shared genetic influences and specific (i.e. uncorrelated) shared/familial environmental effects on these DSM-IV-defined behaviors. These results have implications for how best to define CD and ODD for future genetically informed analyses.

PMID:
23795654
PMCID:
PMC4024101
DOI:
10.1017/S0033291713001396
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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