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J Proteome Res. 2013 Jun 7;12(6):2833-45. doi: 10.1021/pr4001702. Epub 2013 May 23.

Early diet impacts infant rhesus gut microbiome, immunity, and metabolism.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Abstract

Epidemiological research has indicated a relationship between infant formula feeding and increased risk of chronic diseases later in life including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The present study used an infant rhesus monkey model to compare the comprehensive metabolic implications of formula- and breast-feeding practices using NMR spectroscopy to characterize metabolite fingerprints from urine and serum, in combination with anthropometric measurements, fecal microbial profiling, and cytokine measurements. Here we show that formula-fed infants are larger than their breast-fed counterparts and have a different gut microbiome that includes higher levels of bacteria from the Ruminococcus genus and lower levels of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus. In addition, formula-fed infants have higher serum insulin coupled with higher amino acid levels, while amino acid degradation products were higher in breast-fed infants. Increases in serum and urine galactose and urine galactitol were observed in the second month of life in formula-fed infants, along with higher levels of TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and other cytokines and growth factors at week 4. These results demonstrate that metabolic and gut microbiome development of formula-fed infants is different from breast-fed infants and that the choice of infant feeding may hold future health consequences.

PMID:
23651394
DOI:
10.1021/pr4001702
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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