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Viral Immunol. 2013 Apr;26(2):126-32. doi: 10.1089/vim.2012.0076.

Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of monomeric and trimeric recombinant SARS coronavirus spike protein subunit vaccine candidates.

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Department of Pediatrics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging infectious disease, and an effective vaccine is not available. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of recombinant proteins corresponding to different domains of the SARS-coronavirus spike protein. Trimeric recombinant proteins were created by fusing the foldon domain derived from T4 bacteriophage to the carboxy-termini of individual domains of the spike protein. While the full-length ectodomain (S) of the spike protein, the full-length ectodomain fused to foldon (S-foldon), the S1 domain (S1), S1-foldon, and the S2 domain(S2) antigens all elicited comparable antibody titers as measured by ELISA, S-foldon induced a significantly higher titer of neutralizing antibody and S2 protein did not elicit virus neutralizing antibodies. When tested in a mouse virus replication model, all the mice vaccinated with the S1, S1-foldon, S, or S-foldon were completely protected.

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