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MAbs. 2013 May-Jun;5(3):406-17. doi: 10.4161/mabs.23941. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Monovalent IgG4 molecules: immunoglobulin Fc mutations that result in a monomeric structure.

Author information

1
MedImmune Ltd.; Department of Antibody Discovery and Protein Engineering; Cambridge, UK.
2
MedImmune LLC.; Departments of Antibody Discovery and Protein Engineering and Analytical Biochemistry; Gaithersburg, MD USA.

Abstract

Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments.

KEYWORDS:

Antibody engineering; FcRn; half-antibody; half-life extension; monomeric Fc

PMID:
23567207
PMCID:
PMC4169034
DOI:
10.4161/mabs.23941
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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