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Ann Vasc Dis. 2012;5(3):334-41. doi: 10.3400/avd.oa.12.00014.

Management of the infected aortoiliac aneurysms.

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1
Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We have reviewed ruptured and nonruptured infected aortoiliac aneurysms to study the clinical presentation, management and eventual outcome of patients managed with in situ prostheses, axillofemoral prostheses grafts and endovascular reconstruction.

DESIGN:

A retrospective chart review of 16 cases treated at a single institution.

METHODS:

From January 2007 to March 2008, a total of 93 patients with aortoiliac aneurysms underwent surgical repair at our institution. Among these, 16 patients (17.2%) were shown to be infected aneurysms of the infrarenal (n = 6), juxtarenal (n = 2), and pararenal aorta (n = 1); the others were 5 common, 1 external, and 1 internal iliac arteries. Fourteen patients were male and 2 were female with the mean age of 66 years (range, 45-79). In all cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal computed tomography and empirical parenteral antibiotics were administered at least 1 week, unless in patients need emergency operations. At the time of an operation, all were saccular and were classified as primary infected aortoiliac aneurysms. Thirteen patients had surgical debridement with in situ graft interposition and omental wrapping, 2 underwent aneurysm exclusion and extra-anatomic (axillo-femoral) bypass, 1 underwent aneurysmectomy of left external iliac artery and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft interposition, and 1 underwent endovascular exclusion. The parenteral antibiotics were continued in the postoperative period for 4-6 weeks. Chronic renal disease was present in 37.5% (6/16), with diabetes mellitus present in 31.25% (5/16). The most common pathogen was Salmonella sp. (n = 6) and E. coli (n = 5). Thirty-seven percent (6/16) of the patients presented late, with a 37.5% (6/16) incidence of ruptured (4 contained, 2 free ruptured) that needed emergency surgery.

RESULTS:

Disease-specific mortality was 31.25% (5/16). The 30-day mortality rate of ruptured cases is high 67% (4/6), because patients present late in the course of the disease. One patient who underwent aneurysm exclusion and extra-anatomic (axillo-femoral) bypass died 6 months later from burst aortic stump. Salmonella and E. coli are the most common pathogens.

CONCLUSIONS:

Early diagnosis followed by surgical intervention with proper antibiotic coverage provides the best results. Mortality rate was still high in patients with sepsis and rupture. An in situ graft interposition and omental wrapping is a safe option for revascularization of infected aneurysms of the iliac arteries and infrarenal aorta.

KEYWORDS:

endovascular repair; infected aortoiliac aneurysms; open repair

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