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Mol Cell Biol. 2013 May;33(9):1830-44. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01521-12. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

ATM- and ATR-mediated phosphorylation of XRCC3 regulates DNA double-strand break-induced checkpoint activation and repair.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Abstract

The RAD51 paralogs XRCC3 and RAD51C have been implicated in homologous recombination (HR) and DNA damage responses. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which these paralogs regulate HR and DNA damage signaling remains obscure. Here, we show that an SQ motif serine 225 in XRCC3 is phosphorylated by ATR kinase in an ATM signaling pathway. We find that RAD51C but not XRCC2 is essential for XRCC3 phosphorylation, and this modification follows end resection and is specific to S and G2 phases. XRCC3 phosphorylation is required for chromatin loading of RAD51 and HR-mediated repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Notably, in response to DSBs, XRCC3 participates in the intra-S-phase checkpoint following its phosphorylation and in the G2/M checkpoint independently of its phosphorylation. Strikingly, we find that XRCC3 distinctly regulates recovery of stalled and collapsed replication forks such that phosphorylation is required for the HR-mediated recovery of collapsed replication forks but is dispensable for the restart of stalled replication forks. Together, these findings suggest that XRCC3 is a new player in the ATM/ATR-induced DNA damage responses to control checkpoint and HR-mediated repair.

PMID:
23438602
PMCID:
PMC3624173
DOI:
10.1128/MCB.01521-12
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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