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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2013 Mar;29(1):229-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2012.11.010. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

The economics of pain management.

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Department of Veterinary Diagnositic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ames, IA 50010, USA.


Using castration and dehorning as the test base, this article evaluates whether pain management is associated with increased production and whether this motivates producers. The literature supporting increased production parameters is limited. Studies have evaluated short periods and often use few animals. Few studies are repeated and the potential for publication bias is high. There is little evidence that pain management is associated with increased production. This is a concern because survey data suggest producers are partly motivated based on economic factors. The unanswered question is whether economic incentive programs would be greater motivators than increased production.

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