Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Pathol. 2013 Apr;182(4):1180-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.12.033. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

A unifying ontology to integrate histological and clinical observations for drug-induced liver injury.

Author information

  • 1Divisions of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA.


Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) may present any morphologic characteristic of acute or chronic liver disease with no standardized terminology in place. Defining lexemes of DILI histopathology would allow the development of advanced knowledge discovery and data mining tools for across comparisons of publicly available information. For these purposes, a DILI ontology (DILIo) was developed by using the Unified Medical Language System tool and the standardized terminology of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT). The DILIo was entrained on findings of 114 US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs by extracting all clinically DILI-related histopathologic descriptions for 1082 liver biopsy samples, which were then analyzed using the Unified Medical Language System MetaMap and subsequently mapped to the SNOMED CT. The DILIo provides a standard means to describe and organize liver injury induced by drugs, enabling comparative analysis of drugs within and across histopathologic terms. The analysis showed that flutamide, troglitazone, diclofenac, isoniazid, and tamoxifen were reported to have the most diverse histopathologic observations in liver biopsy. Necrosis, cholestasis, fatty degeneration, fibrosis, infiltrate, and hepatic necrosis were the most frequent terms used as descriptors of histopathologic features of DILI. In conclusion, DILIo entrains different algorithms for an efficient meta-analysis of published findings for an improved understanding of mechanisms and clinical characteristics of DILI.

Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk