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Public Health Nutr. 2014 Apr;17(4):924-31. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012005563. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor.

Author information

1
1 Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Boulevard, EPN 4005, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
2
2 Information Management Services, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.
3
3 Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
4
4 School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate five popular fast-food chains' menus in relation to dietary guidance.

DESIGN:

Menus posted on chains' websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids' menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed.

SETTING:

Five popular fast-food chains in the USA.

SUBJECTS:

Not applicable.

RESULTS:

Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids' menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points.

CONCLUSIONS:

The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus.

PMID:
23317511
PMCID:
PMC3883949
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980012005563
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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