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Development. 2012 Jul;139(14):2557-65. doi: 10.1242/dev.078774. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

Transient downregulation of Bmp signalling induces extra limbs in vertebrates.

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Center of Regenerative Medicine in Barcelona, Barcelona 08003, Spain.


Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling has been implicated in setting up dorsoventral patterning of the vertebrate limb and in its outgrowth. Here, we present evidence that Bmp signalling or, more precisely, its inhibition also plays a role in limb and fin bud initiation. Temporary inhibition of Bmp signalling either by overexpression of noggin or using a synthetic Bmp inhibitor is sufficient to induce extra limbs in the Xenopus tadpole or exogenous fins in the Danio rerio embryo, respectively. We further show that Bmp signalling acts in parallel with retinoic acid signalling, possibly by inhibiting the known limb-inducing gene wnt2ba.

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