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Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2012 May;21(3):241-8. doi: 10.3109/13645706.2012.665805. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Navigated laparoscopy--liver shift and deformation due to pneumoperitoneum in an animal model.

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St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Instrumentation, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.



Precise laparoscopic liver resection requires accurate planning and visualization of important anatomy such as vessels and tumors. Combining laparoscopic ultrasound with navigation technology could provide this. Preoperative images are valuable for planning and overview of the procedure, while intraoperative images provide an updated view of the surgical field.


To validate the accuracy of navigation technology based on preoperative images, we need to understand how much the liver shifts and deforms due to heartbeat, breathing, surgical manipulation and pneumoperitoneum. In this study, we evaluated liver tumor shift and deformation due to pneumoperitoneum in an animal model.


Tumor models were injected into the liver of the animal, and 3D CT images were acquired before and after insufflation. Tumor shifts and deformation were determined.


The results showed significant tumor position shift due to pneumoperitoneum, with a maximum of 28 mm in cranio-caudal direction. No significant tumor deformation was detected. Small standard deviations suggest rigid body transformation of the liver as a whole, but this needs further investigation.


The findings indicate a need for anatomic shift correction of preoperative images before they are used in combination with LUS guidance during a laparoscopic liver resection procedure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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