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Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2011 May;15(2):68-72. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.90377.

Smoking ban and indoor air quality in restaurants in Mumbai, India.

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Healis Sekhsaria Institute for Public Health, Navi Mumbai, India.



Second-hand smoke contains several toxic chemicals that are known to pollute the air and harm people's health. In India, smoking in public places has been prohibited since October 2008 as a way to reduce second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. The purpose of the present study was to assess the implementation of smoke-free policies and its impact on indoor air quality by measuring the PM(2.5) levels in bars and restaurants, restaurants, country liquor bars, hookah restaurants and pubs in Mumbai.


Air quality measurements at 50 venues were conducted by using a "SIDEPAK(™) AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor" during April to May 2009. Average concentration of PM(2.5) (μg/m(3)) particles was calculated separately for each venue.


Smoking was observed in 36% of the surveyed venues during an hour of data collection. The PM(2.5) levels ranged from 16.97 to 1101.76 μg/m(3). The average level of PM(2.5) among non-smoking venues was 97.19 μg/m(3) and among smoking venues was 363.04 μg/m(3).


Considerable scope for improvement in implementation of smoke-free policies exists. The PM(2.5) levels were exceedingly high in venues where smoking was observed.


Air quality monitoring; indoor public places; secondhand tobacco smoke

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