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N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 3;365(18):1673-83. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1106152.

Inducible apoptosis as a safety switch for adoptive cell therapy.

Author information

1
Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cellular therapies could play a role in cancer treatment and regenerative medicine if it were possible to quickly eliminate the infused cells in case of adverse events. We devised an inducible T-cell safety switch that is based on the fusion of human caspase 9 to a modified human FK-binding protein, allowing conditional dimerization. When exposed to a synthetic dimerizing drug, the inducible caspase 9 (iCasp9) becomes activated and leads to the rapid death of cells expressing this construct.

METHODS:

We tested the activity of our safety switch by introducing the gene into donor T cells given to enhance immune reconstitution in recipients of haploidentical stem-cell transplants. Patients received AP1903, an otherwise bioinert small-molecule dimerizing drug, if graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed. We measured the effects of AP1903 on GVHD and on the function and persistence of the cells containing the iCasp9 safety switch.

RESULTS:

Five patients between the ages of 3 and 17 years who had undergone stem-cell transplantation for relapsed acute leukemia were treated with the genetically modified T cells. The cells were detected in peripheral blood from all five patients and increased in number over time, despite their constitutive transgene expression. A single dose of dimerizing drug, given to four patients in whom GVHD developed, eliminated more than 90% of the modified T cells within 30 minutes after administration and ended the GVHD without recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS:

The iCasp9 cell-suicide system may increase the safety of cellular therapies and expand their clinical applications. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Cancer Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00710892.).

Comment in

PMID:
22047558
PMCID:
PMC3236370
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1106152
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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