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J Cell Biochem. 2012 Jan;113(1):165-73. doi: 10.1002/jcb.23340.

Interaction between PKR and PACT mediated by LPS-inducible NF-κB in human gingival cells.

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Departments of Fundamental Oral Health Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan.


The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a serine/threonine kinase expressed constitutively in mammalian cells. PKR is activated upon virus infection by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and plays a critical role in host antiviral defense mechanisms. PKR is also known to regulate various biological responses, including cell differentiation and apoptosis. However, whether PKR is involved in the progress of periodontitis is not clear. The present study explained the phosphorylation of PKR by LPS in the human gingival cell line, Sa3. Expression of genes encoding LPS receptors was detected in Sa3 cells and treatment of cells with 1 µg/mL LPS for 6 h caused PKR phosphorylation. LPS elevated the expression of the protein activator of PKR (PACT) mRNA and protein, followed by the enhanced association between PACT and PKR within 3 h. In addition, LPS treatment induced the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus after 30 min, and inhibition of NF-κB decreased the PACT-PKR interaction induced by LPS. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), appeared within 45 min and reached at the maximal levels by 90 min after the addition of LPS. This induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines was not affected by RNAi-mediated silencing of PKR and a pharmacological inhibitor of PKR, whereas the inhibition of NF-κB decreased it. These results indicated that LPS induces PKR phosphorylation and the PACT-PKR association in Sa3 cells. Our results also suggest that NF-κB is involved in the PACT-PKR interaction and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in periodontitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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