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Biochemistry. 2011 Aug 16;50(32):7057-66. doi: 10.1021/bi200614y. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Glutathionylation at Cys-111 induces dissociation of wild type and FALS mutant SOD1 dimers.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, United States.

Abstract

Mutation of the ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is hypothesized to cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through structural destabilization leading to misfolding and aggregation. Considering the late onset of symptoms as well as the phenotypic variability among patients with identical SOD1 mutations, it is clear that nongenetic factor(s) impact ALS etiology and disease progression. Here we examine the effect of Cys-111 glutathionylation, a physiologically prevalent post-translational oxidative modification, on the stabilities of wild type SOD1 and two phenotypically diverse FALS mutants, A4V and I112T. Glutathionylation results in profound destabilization of SOD1(WT) dimers, increasing the equilibrium dissociation constant K(d) to ~10-20 μM, comparable to that of the aggressive A4V mutant. SOD1(A4V) is further destabilized by glutathionylation, experiencing an ~30-fold increase in K(d). Dissociation kinetics of glutathionylated SOD1(WT) and SOD1(A4V) are unchanged, as measured by surface plasmon resonance, indicating that glutathionylation destabilizes these variants by decreasing association rate. In contrast, SOD1(I112T) has a modestly increased dissociation rate but no change in K(d) when glutathionylated. Using computational structural modeling, we show that the distinct effects of glutathionylation on different SOD1 variants correspond to changes in composition of the dimer interface. Our experimental and computational results show that Cys-111 glutathionylation induces structural rearrangements that modulate stability of both wild type and FALS mutant SOD1. The distinct sensitivities of SOD1 variants to glutathionylation, a modification that acts in part as a coping mechanism for oxidative stress, suggest a novel mode by which redox regulation and aggregation propensity interact in ALS.

PMID:
21739997
PMCID:
PMC3281512
DOI:
10.1021/bi200614y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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