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J Clin Lipidol. 2009 Aug;3(4):289-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2009.07.003. Epub 2009 Jul 17.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome in men and women.

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Provident Clinical Research, 489 Taft Avenue, Glen Ellyn, IL 60137 USA.



Low vitamin D status has been associated with markers of cardiovascular disease risk.


This cross-sectional study assessed the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and selected markers for cardiovascular disease risk, including metabolic syndrome and its components, in adult men and women.


Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure were assessed in 257 men and women. Dietary intake was assessed with food frequency and dietary supplement questionnaires.


Total vitamin D intake and that from dietary supplements were significantly associated with increasing serum 25(OH)D tertile (both P < .001). Mean±SEM serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in a graded fashion (P < .001) from the lowest (48.4±1.8mg/dL) to the highest (62.3±2.1mg/dL) 25(OH)D tertile. The relationship between 25(OH)D and HDL-C remained significant (P < .001) after adjustment for established determinants of the HDL-C, with each 10-ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D associated with a 4.2-mg/dL increase in HDL-C concentration. Serum triglycerides (P=.008), waist circumference (P < .001), and body mass index (P < .001) showed graded, inverse relationships with 25(OH)D tertile, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased significantly from the lowest to the highest 25(OH)D tertile (31%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, P for trend=.001).


Lower serum 25(OH)D is associated with the metabolic syndrome and adverse values for some metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly the HDL-C concentration. Research is warranted to assess whether increasing vitamin D intake will improve the metabolic cardiovascular risk factor profile.


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