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J Thromb Haemost. 2011 Jan;9(1):109-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2010.04095.x.

Thirteen novel VKORC1 mutations associated with oral anticoagulant resistance: insights into improved patient diagnosis and treatment.

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Institute of Experimental Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.



Vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) is the molecular target of oral anticoagulants. Mutations in VKORC1 cause partial or total coumarin resistance.


To identify new VKORC1 oral anticoagulant (OAC) resistance (OACR) mutations and compare the severity of patient phenotypes across different mutations and prescribed OAC drugs.


Six hundred and twenty-six individuals exhibiting partial or complete coumarin resistance were analyzed by VKORC1 gene sequencing and CYP2C9 haplotyping.


We identified 13 patients, each with a different, novel human VKORC1 heterozygous mutation associated with an OACR phenotype. These mutations result in amino acid substitutions: Ala26→Thr, His28→Gln, Asp36→Gly, Ser52→Trp, Ser56→Phe, Trp59→Leu, Trp59→Cys, Val66→Gly, Gly71→Ala, Asn77→Ser, Asn77→Tyr, Ile123→Asn, and Tyr139→His. Ten additional patients each had one of three previously reported VKORC1 mutations (Val29→Leu, Asp36→Tyr, and Val66→Met). Genotyping of frequent VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms in these patients revealed a predominant association with combined non-VKORC1*2 and wild-type CYP2C9 haplotypes. Additionally, data for OAC dosage and the associated measured International Normalized Ratio (INR) demonstrate that OAC therapy is often discontinued by physicians, although stable therapeutic INR levels may be reached at higher OAC dosages. Bioinformatic analysis of VKORC1 homologous protein sequences indicated that most mutations cluster into protein sequence segments predicted to be localized in the lumenal loop or at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane-lumen interface.


OACR mutations of VKORC1 predispose afflicted patients to high OAC dosage requirements, for which stable, therapeutic INRs can sometimes be attained.

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