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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010 Oct;67(19):3275-85. doi: 10.1007/s00018-010-0421-8. Epub 2010 Jun 15.

Sexual reproduction in the Candida clade: cryptic cycles, diverse mechanisms, and alternative functions.

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Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, 171 Meeting St, Providence, RI 02912, USA.


To have sex, or not to have sex, is a question posed by many microorganisms. In favor of a sexual lifestyle is the associated rearrangement of genetic material that confers potential fitness advantages, including resistance to antimicrobial agents. The asexual lifestyle also has benefits, as it preserves complex combinations of genes that may be optimal for pathogenesis. For this reason, it was thought that several pathogenic fungi favored strictly asexual modes of reproduction. Recent approaches using genome sequencing, population analysis, and experimental techniques have now revised this simplistic picture. It is now apparent that many pathogenic fungi have retained the ability to undergo sexual reproduction, although reproduction is primarily clonal in origin. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of sexual programs in the Candida clade of species. We also examine evidence that sexual-related processes can be used for functions in addition to mating and recombination in these organisms.

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