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Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010 Feb;7(1):19-27. doi: 10.1007/s11904-009-0035-7.

Use of nonhuman primate models to develop mucosal AIDS vaccines.

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Center for Comparative Medicine, California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.


The HIV vaccines tested in the halted Step efficacy trial and the modestly successful phase 3 RV144 trial were designed to elicit strong systemic immune responses; therefore, strategies to direct immune responses into mucosal sites should be tested in an effort to improve AIDS vaccine efficacy. However, as increased CD4(+) T-cell activation and recruitment to mucosal sites have the potential to enhance HIV transmission, mucosal immune responses to HIV vaccines should primarily consist of effector CD8(+) T cells and plasma cells. Controlling the level of mucosal T-cell activation may be a critical factor in developing an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine. Immunization routes and adjuvants that can boost antiviral immunity in mucosal surfaces offer a reasonable opportunity to improve AIDS vaccine efficacy. Nonhuman primate models offer the best system for preclinical evaluation of these approaches.

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