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J Biol Chem. 1991 May 15;266(14):8835-55.

The substrate specificity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase. Analysis of myristic acid analogs containing oxygen, sulfur, double bonds, triple bonds, and/or an aromatic residue.

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Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri 63198.


We have explored the acyl-CoA substrate specificity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) by synthesizing 81 fatty acid analogs and surveying their activity in a coupled in vitro assay containing Pseudomonas acyl-CoA synthetase and Escherichia coli-derived yeast NMT. Single oxygen or sulfur substitution for C-3 through C-13 is well tolerated by both enzymes. Detailed kinetic analyses suggest that the acyl-CoA and peptide-binding sites of NMT are relatively insensitive to placement of single group 6B heteroatoms. By contrast, di-oxygen-substituted analogs were very poor substrates, producing dramatic reductions in the affinity of NMTs peptide-binding site for a synthetic octapeptide substrate derived from the NH2-terminal sequence of a known N-myristoylprotein, the gag poly-protein precursor of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). This observation provides an example of binding site cooperativity in NMT. Replacement of one oxygen with sulfur at either the 6, 9, or 12 position of dioxatetradecanoic acids results in a general increase in peptide catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km). An analysis of five fatty acids from octanoic to dodecanoic having terminal phenyl groups indicated that the best substrate was 10-phenyldecanoic acid even though Corey-Pauling-Koltun molecular models indicate that it has a length equivalent to that of tridecanoic acid. Six analogs having an equivalent length of 13 carbon atoms were subsequently prepared in which the phenyl group was systematically moved one methylene group closer to carboxyl. Movement of the phenyl just one carbon closer to carboxyl (producing 9-(p-methylphenyl) nonanoic acid) decreases peptide catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) severalfold compared to 10-phenyldecanoic acid. 10-(4-Tolyl)decanoic acid has the same relative positions of phenyl and carboxyl as 10-phenyldecanoic acid even though a methyl group is present on the phenyl ring. It produces peptide Km and Vmax values that are the same as 10-phenyldecanoic acid. Substitution of either oxygen or sulfur for a methylene group fails to override the effects noted when the phenyl group position is altered in the C-14 equivalent fatty acid series. Several fatty acids of differing chain lengths with cyclohexyl-, 2-furyl, and 2-thienyl groups at their omega termnius had activity profiles that paralleled those of the comparable phenyl-substituted compounds. Myristic acid analogs with triple bonds (beginning at positions 2 through 13), cis-double bonds (positions 3 through 13) and trans-double bond isomers (E5, E6, and E7) were also tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

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